GIS is wonderful technology with great tools that help to grasp our data in better way.
GIS or Geographical Information System is a collection of software that allows you to create, visualize, query and analyze geospatial data.
You can say it is a computer-based tool for mapping and analyzing geographic phenomenon that exist, and events that occur, on Earth. Geospatial data refers to information about the geographic location of an entity. This often involves the use of a geographic coordinate, like a latitude or longitude value. One can perform variety of functions using geospatial data like computing distances between two points, or calculating particular area.
GIS has four main functional subsystems:
1. Data Input: allows to capture, collect, and transform spatial and thematic data into digital form
2.Data Storage and Retrieval: organizes the data in form which helps user to retrieve data easily
3.Data Manipulation and Analysis : allows to define and execute spatial procedures to generate derived information
4. Data Output : allows the user to generate graphic displays, normally maps, and tabular reports
Geospatial data is of two types: Raster data and Vector Data.
We can say that raster data is usually a digital satellite imagery or air photos. Raster data make use of grid-cell data structure where the geographic area is divided into cells identified by row and column.
Vector data is has some qualities which we studied in our trigonometry and coordinate geometry classes. Vector storage implies the use of vectors (directional lines) to represent a geographic feature. Vector data is characterized by the use of sequential points or vertices to define a linear segment. Each vertex consists of an X coordinate and a Y coordinate.
The range of GIS application is very large. You can use it for anything.
Take Crime Mapping. Mapping crime, using GIS, you can identify the crime hot spots. There are many similar examples where you can use GIS.
GIS is even useful to businessmen. One in Real Estate can make strong use of GIS.
Now,I must end with saying “GIS is just AWESOME “.